What is Prediabetes? (Borderline Diabetes)
Prediabetes is a condition that 1 out of 3 American adults have, but only 10% are aware that they have it.
Jump to the development of prediabetes section.
Normal (Healthy) Blood Sugar Regulation
Prediabetes is a stage between normal, healthy blood sugar control, and type 2 diabetes. Blood sugar, or blood glucose, levels are higher in prediabetes than in healthy people, but lower than in diabetes. The same is true for insulin resistance. These are also related to how your body uses carbohydrates.
Normal Carbohydrate Metabolism
You may have some idea that your blood sugar levels are related to carbohydrates, and all that has something to do with prediabetes and diabetes, but…what? Let us start with normal carbohydrate metabolism, and the relationship to your blood sugar levels.
Carbohydrates from Food and Your Body
The focus here is on sugars and starches. These are types of carbohydrates that are in foods. The foods can be healthy or less healthy; examples of high-carbohydrate foods include fruit, starchy vegetables (think potatoes, corn, and sweet potatoes), grains and grain products (think cereal, bread, pasta, and pretzels), legumes (think beans, peas, and lentils), dairy products, and sugary foods (think sodas, ice cream, candy, and cake).
When you eat foods with sugars and starches, your body breaks down those carbohydrates into a specific type of simple sugar called glucose. The glucose enters your bloodstream, causing your blood sugar or blood glucose levels to rise. This happens after a meal.
Another source of blood glucose is your liver. Your liver makes and stores glucose so that you can use the glucose when your cells need it. This can happen when you have not eaten recently, so there is no available glucose from food, or while you are exercising.
Blood Sugar Levels, Insulin, and Your Body’s Cells
What happens to all that glucose that is now floating around in your bloodstream? Many cells, such as your muscle and brain cells, need it for energy. If you take in more energy than you need, your body can convert the excess sugar to fat and store it.
Here is where insulin enters the picture. Insulin is a hormone that is produced by beta cells in your pancreas. Your fat, muscle, and liver cells all need insulin to be able to take in the glucose from your blood. When your blood sugar levels rise, your pancreas release insulin to help cells in your body take glucose from the bloodstream. Once blood glucose levels are back down to normal, your insulin levels drop, too.
Insulin Resistance and the Development of Prediabetes
Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes are conditions that develop when insulin does not work properly in your body anymore. They develop gradually, often over years or decades, and are usually as least partially related to lifestyle factors that you have some control over.
Changes in Insulin Demands and Blood Glucose Regulation
Insulin is released in response to an increase in blood sugar. When you are healthy, the system works well.
This carefully controlled system can go awry, though. Here is how the scenario can change if you continually challenge your blood glucose regulation system. A common way this can happen is if you are gaining weight. With weight gain, you are consistently eating more than your body needs.
1. You eat a meal. You eat more than you need.
2. Your blood sugar levels rise. They rise to higher-than-normal post-meal levels.
3. Your pancreas release insulin into your bloodstream. Your pancreas need to produce and release more insulin than normal.
4. Cells in your body use insulin to take up glucose. Cells need more insulin than normal to get the job done.
5. Insulin and blood glucose levels return down to baseline levels. But the system was strained to take care of the extra demands.
Age, genetics, a poor diet, being physically inactive, and other factors can also cause an increase in insulin demands or changes similar to those outlined above.
The Start of Insulin Resistance
Continually asking your body to produce more insulin leads to trouble. You are likely to develop a condition called insulin resistance. That means that the cells in your body are no longer highly sensitive, or responsive, to insulin. Instead, they require more insulin to do the same job of clearing excess glucose from your blood to get blood sugar levels back to normal.
The Development of Prediabetes and Diabetes
Your body will try to keep up with demands, and can be successful for a long time. As your insulin resistance increases, your pancreas can produce increasing amounts of insulin to try to keep blood sugar levels in normal ranges.
If this continues, though, the system will eventually break down. At some point, your pancreas will be unable to produce enough insulin to keep up with demand. This can be because your cells develop a high level of insulin resistance, and/or because your pancreatic beta cells, which produce insulin, become exhausted.
This point, when insulin is no longer sufficient, is the point when your blood sugar levels begin to rise. You can get a blood test, and your doctor can diagnose you with prediabetes or diabetes based on the result. I
Blood Sugar Levels in Prediabetes
There are three tests you can get to check for prediabetes. They are all related to your blood sugar. Prediabetes values are higher than the values that are considered normal, but lower than the values in diabetes.
|Test||What It Measures||How It Works||Prediabetes Value|
Longer-term (3-month) estimate of blood sugar values
Simple blood test – does not need to be fasting
5.7 to 6.4%
Fasting plasma glucose (FPG)
The amount of glucose in your bloodstream
Blood test after an overnight fast (at least 8 hours)
Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)
How well your body metabolizes glucose (sugar)
Blood test 1 hour after you drink a solution with 75 grams of glucose
When to Get Tested for Prediabetes
Your doctor may order a prediabetes screening test for you, and the American Diabetes Association recommends regular screening if you are 45 years of age or older.  You might want to ask your healthcare provider to order a prediabetes test if you have symptoms or risk factors.
· Increased thirst and more frequent urination.
· Tingling or numbness in your fingers or feet.
· Increased hunger.
· Unexplained low energy levels.
· Slower healing of cuts and minor wounds.
Still, it is important to know that not only might you not get symptoms with diabetes, but you are unlikely to have symptoms with prediabetes. That is why you should know your risk.
Prediabetes Risk Factors
The risk factors for prediabetes include both lifestyle factors, which you can change, and genetic factors, which you cannot change.  Knowing which risk factors you have can give you an idea of whether you are likely to have prediabetes or be at risk for insulin resistance.
· Not getting regular physical activity or exercise.
· Eating high amounts of sugar, refined carbohydrates, or fried foods.
· Having a diet low in fiber.
These are some of the genetic, or non-modifiable, risk factors for prediabetes.
· Having a family history of type 2 diabetes.
· Being 45 years of age or older.
· Being of African American, Native American, Asian American, or Hispanic American ethnicity.
· Having a personal history of gestational diabetes or having given birth to a baby weighing at least 9 lb.
· Having polycystic ovarian syndrome, or PCOS.
Time to Get Tested for Prediabetes?
It is best to be on the safe side and get tested for prediabetes even if you do not have symptoms or do not think you have many risk factors. There is data to back this up: a full one-third of American adults have prediabetes, and a shocking 90% of them do not know that they have it!  That means these people are not getting the care they need for it, and are more likely to have health consequences or see it progress to diabetes.
Prediabetes versus Diabetes
· They are both conditions that result from insulin resistance and inadequate insulin activity.
· They both are characterized by high blood sugar levels.
· They are both responsive to a healthy diet and exercise program.
If you do not keep your blood sugar within goal ranges, diabetes can lead to complications. These can include loss of vision, neuropathy in your hands and feet, and poor wound healing. Diabetes also raises your risk for heart disease, kidney disease, hypertension, and stroke. 
Extra Burden of Diabetes Management
· You may be on one or more prescription medications, possibly including insulin that requires injections.
· You will need to test your blood sugar at least twice per day, and possibly more, such as before or after meals and exercise, or when you drink alcohol.
· You will need to carry blood glucose tablets or another high-sugar snack all the time, just in case you get hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).
· You may need to modify your planned exercise session if your blood sugar goes awry.
Fighting Prediabetes with Lifestyle and Medical Care
Most people with prediabetes eventually get diabetes. About 5 to 10% of people with prediabetes get diabetes each year,  but you can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes with lifestyle changes. A famous clinical trial tested the effects of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-approved Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) in people with prediabetes. 
The study found that:
· Participants in the DPP group had a 58% lower risk of developing diabetes.
· Participants who were at least 60 years old or who were Asian American had a 71% lower risk.
· Participants in the DPP group had more weight loss and increased activity levels than those in other groups.
The Prediabetes Lifestyle and DPP
· Increasing your physical activity, with your doctor’s permission. A good goal is to work up to 150 minutes per week of exercises such as walking, swimming, aerobics, and playing tennis.
The DPP has a curriculum designed to help you lose weight and implement the other lifestyle behaviors that can help you prevent or delay type 2 diabetes. The program takes a year to complete and may be covered by your insurance. You can enroll in an in-person DPP with weekly meetings, or opt for a program such as Lark DPP, which you can access anytime on your smartphone.
Prediabetes and Your Doctor
As you would with any health condition, you should work alongside your doctor to manage prediabetes. Along with supporting you in your healthy lifestyle changes, your doctor can order blood sugar tests to monitor your progress, and let you know if there is anything more you should do for your prediabetes. You may even get a prescription for metformin to increase your insulin sensitivity.
Staying Positive with Prediabetes
It is normal to feel confused or frustrated any time you get news that you have a health condition, but you can think of your prediabetes diagnosis as a positive thing. It gives you a chance to make effective and meaningful changes that can prevent or delay diabetes or its complications.
The lifestyle changes you make now can be challenging, but here is extra motivation. These changes can help your health in other ways, plus give you benefits that you feel immediately in your daily life. When you eat right and get active, you can:
· Lower blood pressure and cholesterol.
· Have more energy.
· Sleep better.
· Improve your confidence.
· Enjoy a better mood.
Talk to your doctor if you think you may have prediabetes or you want to start monitoring your blood sugar. It could be one of the best steps you take for your health.
What is Lark?
A new study reveals that artificial intelligence could be a useful tool to help patients prevent Type 2 diabetes. The study, published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research, showed that patients at risk of Type 2 diabetes who used the Lark Weight Loss Health Coach AI, dropped 2.38 percent of their baseline weight and increase the percentage of healthful meals they ate by 31 percent.
Lark Technologies debuted in 2011 and was originally focused on sleep technologies, but have pivoted, or as Hu says, evolved. Now there are no longer field devices but the technologies sit on top of 70 different health monitors.
“The idea was, can we create an AI coach that coaches on several different aspects of your health,” said Hu. “We started with sleep then, went to exercise, then went to nutrition and that helped us really build for chronic conditions. They are diseases that require lifestyle changes, behavioral health change, and self efficacy.”
“This study demonstrates AI’s potential to provide compassionate care that is associated with weight loss, increased healthy lifestyle behaviors, and user trust that can reduce diabetes risk,” the study reads.